Parallel Structure (Parallelism) 平行結構／對稱結構
One of the more important mechanics of proper English grammar usage is the application of parallel structure patterns. When introducing words, phrases, and clauses of equal or similar importance in a series, be sure to join them in the same form. Ideas joined together with parallel structures will make your sentences sound more coherent and consistent, allowing readers to follow your ideas in a clear and logical manner.
✎ Each verb in the series needs to have the same ending - so ‘reading’, ‘listening’, and ‘hanging’.（句子中的每個動詞都要有相同的結尾，比如 reading, listening 和 hanging。）
✎ If it’s difficult to align the words into a parallel structure, change the verbs in the sentence into simpler adjectives and then make them parallel.（如果很難將這些字排列成平行結構，可將句子中的動詞改為更簡單的形容詞，然後使其平行。）
・The essential qualities that outspoken leaders share are exhibiting confidence, having ample experience, and using humor in balance with lessons.
✎ There are different ways to alter a sentence to use parallel structures - in this case we can use either parallel nouns in the first version or parallel verbs in the second version.（有不同的方法藉由改變句子來使用平行結構---在這種情況下，我們可以在第一個版本中使用平行名詞，或在第二個版本中使用平行動詞。）
・His performance in the company was consistently excellent, because he was known for his strong communication skills, extensive product research abilities, and mastery over advanced corporate etiquette.
✎ There can be more or less than three in a series of parallel words. If the words and phrases do not have parallel structures, it may be confusing for the reader to follow along with the sentence. In this example, using both ‘but’ and ‘and’ as conjunctions in a series may confuse the reader.（一連串的平行詞中可以有多於或少於三個。如果這些字和片語沒有平行結構，可能會使讀者對句子內容感到困惑。在上述例子中，在一個句子中同時使用“但是”及“和”作為連接詞，可能會使讀者感到困惑。）
✎ Sometimes you can change the order of phrases in the sentence or change the sentence structure entirely if rearranging the words will make it easier to introduce parallel structure.（有時你可以改變句子中片語的順序或完全改變句子結構，如果重新排列單字可以更容易地引入平行結構。）
✎ Items in a list will also be clearer and cleaner with a parallel structure - isn’t the sentence more coherent this way?（列表項目在平行結構下也會更清晰、更乾淨---這樣的句子是不是更連貫呢？）