聽讀英文 – 自然科學:颱風的形成 Typhoon formation (音)|貝塔語測
聽讀英文 – 自然科學:颱風的形成 Typhoon formation (音)

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By  Quentin Brand

Script 閱讀文本

Typhoons, known as cyclones or hurricanes in different parts of the world, are awe-inspiring yet destructive natural phenomena. But have you ever wondered how these massive storms come into existence? Let’s break it down in simple terms, so everyone can understand. 

Typhoons are like nature’s heat engines. They require warm ocean waters with temperatures above 26 degrees Celsius to start their formation. Warm water is the fuel that powers these storms. The atmosphere needs to be loaded with moisture. This moisture-laden air rises from the warm ocean surface, creating the first step towards a typhoon. As the warm, moist air rises, it cools, condenses, and forms clouds. This rising air creates an area of lower pressure near the surface, essentially a vacuum that needs to be filled. 

Earth’s rotation plays a crucial role in typhoon formation. The Coriolis Effect, caused by the Earth’s spin, makes the air masses start spinning as they rise. In the Northern Hemisphere, they spin counterclockwise, and in the Southern Hemisphere, they spin clockwise. When these spinning clouds organize and grow, they become a tropical depression. This is the first stage of typhoon development. Winds in a tropical depression are usually less than 63 kilometers per hour. If the tropical depression continues to strengthen, it can become a tropical storm. Winds in a tropical storm range from 63 to 118 kilometers per hour. It’s at this stage that the storm is given a name. If the conditions remain favorable, the tropical storm can intensify further and develop into a typhoon. Typhoons have winds exceeding 119 kilometers per hour. 

Warm ocean waters act like a heat source, continuously feeding energy into the typhoon. As the storm moves across the ocean, it sucks up more warm water, allowing it to grow and become more powerful. Typhoons can last for several days to a few weeks, depending on various factors. They eventually weaken when they move over cooler waters or encounter unfavorable atmospheric conditions. 

Typhoons can unleash destructive winds, torrential rainfall, and storm surges, causing flooding, landslides, and extensive damage to homes and infrastructure. They can also have devastating effects on communities and ecosystems. Understanding how typhoons form is essential for better preparedness and resilience in typhoon-prone areas. Meteorologists and scientists closely monitor these storms to provide early warnings, helping people and authorities take necessary precautions and stay safe. 

In summary, typhoons are born when warm, moist air rises from the ocean’s surface, and the Earth’s rotation gives them a spin. They go through stages of development, from a tropical depression to a tropical storm and finally to a typhoon, fueled by warm ocean waters. Knowing the science behind typhoons can help us be better prepared when these formidable storms come our way.

Translation 中文翻譯
颱風就像大自然的熱力發動機。它們需要溫度高於攝氏 26 度的溫暖海洋水域,才能開始形成。溫暖的海水是驅動這些風暴的燃料。大氣中需要充滿水分。這帶有水分的空氣從溫暖的海洋表面上升,創造了邁向颱風的第一步。當溫暖而潮濕的空氣上升時,它會冷卻、凝結並形成雲層。這種上升的空氣在地表附近創造了一個低壓區域,本質上是一個需要填充的真空。 
地球的自轉在颱風的形成中起著至關重要的作用。由於地球的自轉引起的科氏效應,當空氣塊上升時,它們會開始旋轉。在北半球,它們逆時針旋轉,而在南半球,它們順時針旋轉。當這些旋轉的雲團組織起來並生長時,它們就會變成熱帶低氣壓。這是颱風發展的第一階段。熱帶低氣壓的風速通常低於每小時 63 公里。如果熱帶低氣壓繼續加強,它可能會變成熱帶風暴。熱帶風暴的風速為每小時 63 至 118 公里。正是在這個階段,風暴被命名。如果條件保持有利,熱帶風暴可能會進一步增強並發展為颱風。颱風的風速超過每小時 119 公里。 
颱風會引發破壞性強風、暴雨和風暴潮,造成洪水、山崩,並對房屋和基礎設施造成廣泛破壞。它們也可能對社區和生態系統產生破壞性影響。 了解颱風的形成對於颱風多發地區更好的防備和恢復能力至關重要。氣象學家和科學家密切監測這些風暴,提供早期預警,幫助人們和當局採取必要的預防措施並確保安全。 
In the 5th paragraph you will see the word ‘unleash’. This word means ‘released’ and we use it when we want to describe that something becomes uncontrollable. It comes from the word ‘leash’, which is the rope we use to prevent a dog from running away. Here are some more example sentences using the word: 
‘The passionate speech by the politician unleashed a wave of enthusiasm and support among the crowd.’ 
‘His innovative ideas unleashed a revolution in the tech industry.’
在第五段中,你會看到「unleash」一字,意思是「釋放」,當我們想要描述某件事變得無法控制時,我們會使用它。此字來自 leash 這個字,即用來防止狗逃跑的繩子。以下是一些使用該字的更多例句: 
IRT 作題評量,診斷學習強弱

Q1: What is the main topic of the article?

A. the weather

B. how typhoons form

C. science


Q2: In the second paragraph what does the word ‘moisture’ mean?

A. wet air

B. pollution

C. gas


Q3: What is the difference between a tropical storm and a typhoon?

A. a typhoon contains more water

B. a typhoon has faster winds

C. a typhoon is bigger

Q1: B Q2: A Q3: B

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