聽讀英文 – 人文與歷史:歌劇的起源 History of opera (音)|貝塔語測
聽讀英文 – 人文與歷史:歌劇的起源 History of opera (音)

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By  Quentin Brand

Script 閱讀文本

Opera, the grandest of musical art forms, has a history that stretches back over four centuries. Its rich evolution is a testament to the enduring power of human creativity and expression. From its humble beginnings in Renaissance Italy to the global stages of today, let us embark on a captivating journey through the history of opera. 

The birth of opera can be traced to Italy in the late 16th century. The earliest known work often credited as the first opera is Jacopo Peris “Dafne” (1598), although many consider “Euridice” (1600) by Peri and Giulio Caccini to be the true pioneers. These early works, inspired by Greek tragedy and myth, used a combination of recitative (a style of singing) and arias (songs) to convey the narrative. 

Opera soon flourished, primarily in Italy, during the 17th century. The introduction of opera houses, such as the Teatro di San Cassiano in Venice, marked a significant step in the genre’s development. Composers like Claudio Monteverdi, known for his iconic opera “L’Orfeo” (1607), elevated the art form with their musical innovations and emotionally charged storytelling. 

The 18th century saw the spread of opera across Europe. Composers like George Frideric Handel in England and Christoph Willibald Gluck in Germany made profound contributions. Meanwhile, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, with masterpieces like “The Marriage of Figaro” (1786) and “Don Giovanni” (1787), enriched opera with his extraordinary compositions. 

The 19th century brought the era of Romanticism, which greatly influenced opera. Giuseppe Verdi, often regarded as one of the most prominent opera composers, composed timeless classics like “La Traviata” (1853) and “Aida” (1871). The emotional intensity and grandeur characteristic of Romanticism left an indelible mark on the opera world. 

Richard Wagner’s revolutionary approach to opera during the late 19th century brought forth a new concept of opera known as “music drama.” His four-opera cycle, “The Ring of the Nibelung,” represents an epic accomplishment in the history of the art form, featuring a continuous narrative and a unique approach to music. 

The 20th century saw the diversification of opera styles. While Puccini’s operas like “Madama Butterfly” (1904) and “Tosca” (1900) continued the tradition of Italian opera, composers like Richard Strauss and Igor Stravinsky pushed boundaries with avant-garde works. Opera became a platform for experimenting with both music and storytelling. 

Today, opera is a global art form, embracing a wide range of themes, musical styles, and languages. Contemporary composers like Philip Glass and John Adams have further expanded its horizons. Opera remains a vibrant and dynamic art, with new works and interpretations constantly emerging. 

As we trace the history of opera, we witness a breathtaking journey of human creativity, storytelling, and musical innovation. It has evolved from the intimate courts of Italy to the grand stages of the world, maintaining its ability to stir deep emotions and captivate audiences across the globe. Opera’s legacy endures as a testament to the enduring power of the arts to touch the human soul.

Translation 中文翻譯
歌劇的誕生可以追溯到 16 世紀末的義大利。最早被認為是第一部歌劇的已知作品是雅各布・佩里的《達芙妮》(1598 年),儘管許多人認為佩里和朱利歐・卡契尼的《尤里西絲》( 1600 年)是真正的先驅。這些早期作品受到希臘悲劇和神話的啟發,結合宣敘調(一種歌唱風格)和詠嘆調(歌曲)來傳達敘事。 
歌劇很快在 17 世紀蓬勃發展,主要是在義大利。歌劇院的引入,例如威尼斯聖卡諾劇院,標誌著這一流派的發展邁出了重要一步。克勞迪奧・蒙特威爾第等作曲家以其標誌性歌劇《奧菲歐》(1607 年)而聞名,他們透過音樂創新和充滿情感的故事講述提升了這種藝術形式。 
18 世紀歌劇在歐洲傳播開來。英國的喬治・弗里德里克亨德爾和德國的克里斯托夫・威利巴爾德・格魯克等作曲家做出了深遠的貢獻。同時,沃夫岡・阿瑪多伊斯・莫札特的代表作《費加洛的婚禮》(1786 年)和《唐璜》(1787 年)等,以其非凡的作品豐富了歌劇樂章。 
19 世紀進入了浪漫主義時代,對歌劇產生了極大的影響。朱塞佩・威爾第常被認為是最著名的歌劇作曲家之一,創作了《茶花女》(1853 年)和《阿依達》(1871 年)等永恆的經典之作。浪漫主義的情感強烈和宏偉特徵在歌劇界留下了不可磨滅的印記。 
理查德・瓦格納在 19 世紀末對歌劇的革命性研究提出了一種新的歌劇概念,稱為「music drama 音樂劇」。他的四部歌劇《尼伯龍根之戒》代表了藝術形式史上的史詩成就,具有連續的敘事和獨特的音樂方法。 
20 世紀,歌劇風格呈現多元化。普契尼的《蝴蝶夫人》(1904 年)和《托斯卡》(1900 年)等歌劇延續了義大利歌劇的傳統,而理查德・施特勞斯和伊戈爾・斯特拉文斯基等作曲家則用前衛作品突破了界限。歌劇成為嘗試音樂和說故事的平台。 
※ Quentin老師閱讀文本外,另有補充對於本篇主題的個人觀點與讀者分享,請仔細聆聽,並思考自己的想法。※
In the second paragraph, you will see the word ‘pioneer’ which means someone who leads new developments in a field. We use it to describe people who played an important role in the development of a field. Here are some more sentences using the word. 
‘The company’s founder is considered a pioneer in the development of renewable energy.’ 
‘Steve Jobs is often remembered as a technology pioneer.’
在第二段中,你會看到「pioneer 先鋒」一字,也就是指在某一領域引領新發展的人,用以描述在某一領域的發展中發揮重要作用的人。以下是一些使用此字的例句: 
IRT 作題評量,診斷學習強弱

Q1: What is the main topic of the article?

A. music

B. some great composers

C. the history of Western opera


Q2: In the fifth paragraph what does the word ‘prominent’ mean?

A. something sticking out

B. important

C. coming soon


Q3: Who invented music drama?

A. Claudio Monteverdi

B. Giuseppi Verdi

C. Richard Wagner

Q1: C Q2: B Q3: C

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