MBA 英文:產業分析 Industry Analysis|貝塔語測
MBA 英文:產業分析 Industry Analysis

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 Five Forces Model   五力分析模型  (by Michael Porter of Harvard University)
In business, the attractiveness (growth / profitability) of an industry depends on five basic market forces:
1. Bargaining Power of Suppliers 供應商的議價力 
2. Bargaining Power of Buyers 買主的議價力 
3. Threat of New Entrants 潛在競爭者的威脅 
4. Threat of Substitute Products 替代品的威脅 
5. Existing Competition in the Industry 產業內的現有競爭 
The collective strength of these forces determines both the profit potential of an industry as well as the strategy of a company operating in that industry.

1. Bargaining Power of Suppliers 供應商的議價力

The bargaining power of suppliers will be strong if any one or more of the following conditions are met:

・Number of suppliers is few 供應商的家數少
Product that is supplied is unique 所供應的產品獨一無二
Substitute products are not available 沒有替代品
Supplier could “integrate forward” and become a new direct competitor 供應商能「向前整合」並成為新的直接競爭者  

2. Bargaining Power of Buyers 買主的議價力

The bargaining power of buyers will be strong if any one or more of the following conditions are met:

Concentrated number of buyers 只有少數的買主
Purchases in large volumes 大量購買
Substitute products are available 可取得替代品
Buyer could “integrate backward” and become a new direct competitor 買主能「向後整合」並成為新的直接競爭者

3. Threat of New Entrants 潛在競爭者的威脅

This deals specifically with the barriers to entry or, how difficult it is for an outside company to come in to the industry. Some barriers to entry include:

Capital requirements (money) 資本需求(資金)
Economies of scale (cost advantages) 規模經濟(成本優勢)
Proprietary technologies 獨家技術
Government policies / regulations 政府政策/管制

4. Threat of Substitute Products 替代品的威脅

Are there other products that can meet the same customer needs? For example, Disneyland not only competes with Universal Studios in the theme park market, it also competes with other entertainment options such as sporting & concert events, movies, online games and so on. All are competing for the same entertainment dollar.

5. Existing Competition in the Industry 產業內的現有競爭

Industry competition is strong if one or more of the following conditions are met:

Competitors are numerous 競爭者眾多
Industry growth is slow 產業成長緩慢
Product lacks differentiation 產品缺乏差異化
Exit barriers are high 退出障礙高

Word List 重要字彙

bargaining power 議價能力 / entrant (n.) 進入者 / substitute (adj.) 替代的 / collective strength 集體作用 / integrate forward 向前整合(賣方進入買方所在的產業) / concentrated (adj.) 集中的 / integrate backward 向後整合(買方進入賣方所在的產業) / barriers to entry 進入障礙(在商學院裡經常簡稱為 BTE) / proprietary (adj.) 獨家的 / option (n.) 選項 / entertainment dollar 娛樂花費 / numerous (adj.) 眾多的 / differentiation (n.) 差異化 / exit barrier 退出障礙

MBA 觀點

Airlines—Come Fly with Me

Lets now apply the Five Forces Model to the airline industry. Key suppliers tend to fall into one of two groups: airplane manufacturers and fuel suppliers. The former is dominated by two companies: Boeing and Airbus. Thats it, two companies to choose from when purchasing airplanes, which tends to favor the suppliers. Fuel is another key component for the industry. At present, there are no viable alternative energy sources airlines can rely upon. Fuel, which is a commodity, is driven entirely by factors beyond the control of the airlines. Moving to new entrants, we see that the number of discount airlines has increased tremendously in recent years as government regulations (barriers to entry) have eased. These discount operators appeal to budget travelers whom the large airlines have traditionally relied upon to fill the back of the plane.

There are still substantial upfront capital costs to purchase or lease airplanes, but the excess capacity in the industry has made leasing a more attractive financing option. Moving to the customer side we see two segments: business and leisure travelers. The former has other options in terms of teleconferencing or other types of technology to communicate with business partners & customers. Leisure travelers may opt for rail travel (domestic) or one of the many emerging discount airlines (domestic and international). Substitute products would be other forms of transportation (rail, bus, car for domestic travel) or communication technologies such as Skype which allow business to be conducted from around the world. Finally, the industry itself has fallen into three camps: the discounters, the premium service providers, and everyone else. Its the last category which has been struggling, with repeated bankruptcy filings by airlines unable to stake out a clear competitive advantage.



可用來購買或租用飛機的先期資金成本還有不少,但產業的產能過剩使租用成了較有吸引力的融資選項。從顧客端來說,我們看到了兩個區塊:商務和旅遊來客。在跟商務夥伴及顧客聯絡時,前者所具備的其他選項有電話會議,或是其他類型的科技。旅遊來客則可以選擇火車旅遊(國內),或是從多家崛起的廉價航空當中挑選一家(國內和國際)。替代品有其他的交通工具(以火車、公車、汽車從事國內旅遊),或是像 Skype 這種讓人在世界各地都能做生意的通訊科技。最後,產業本身分為三個陣營:廉價業者、高檔服務業者和其餘所有的業者。最後一類可說是搖搖欲墜,找不到明確競爭優勢的航空公司頻頻宣告破產。